英文校閲サンプル

2023年4月1日改訂

下記掲載の「サンプル」は、英文のみの校閲(英⇒英)[生物学(LEVEL 2, LEVEL 3)、物理学(LEVEL 2, LEVEL 3)]と、日本語参照(日⇒英)での英文添削[化学(標準仕様)契約書(plus仕様)]です。Dolphinは「個人情報保護方針遵守」の観点から「お客様データを公開しない方針」としています。掲載されてあるサンプルは「すべて創作(オリジナル)」となっています。今後も、出来る限りサンプル数を追加していきますが、現時点で学際分野の方々におかれましては、近い分野のサンプルを参考にして戴ければ幸いです。Level1については低価格・英文校正の方にサンプル及び詳細説明があります。どうぞよろしくお願い致します。

①オリジナル➡②エキスパート校正(履歴つき)➡③エキスパート校正(履歴なし)➡Level2完了
③エキスパート校正(履歴なし)➡④リライト(履歴つき)➡⑤リライト(履歴なし)➡リライト納品

こちらはAIで基本訳されている研究者の方へのメッセージです。

2023年現在のAIの大きな弱み(致命的欠陥)としてが目立つのは「主語Weと目的語Youの取り違え」です。機械翻訳されてからご自身で読んでみて「その種の間違いがないかの点検」をお勧めします。ご依頼前に調整が可能ならば、日本語を参照しない英文校閲(英⇒英)でもお受けできますので大幅な費用削減ができます。

お客様側での点検が困難な場合は、英文添削(日⇔英)をお勧めします。
AI翻訳(英文添削)

LEVEL 2 - 弊社は個人情報保護方針から校閲見本にお客様データを使用していません。

🔷エキスパート[英→英]のサンプルは「英国英語仕上げ」です。

  1. 英文法、スペル: 正確なものに改善されています。
  2. 英文の品位等: 英語表現も改善され読みやすくなっています。
  3. 記載内容: お客様が論文を書いた時点で、具体性や正確性に欠けていた場合、英語をいじってもどうにもならない場合もあります。もちろん、これは、どのように考えても元原稿の問題であります。このような英文を、ネイティブ・スピーカーの研究者が、あたかも最初から書いたように書き換える作業がLEVEL 3です。

🔷履歴なしファイル(校正済み)と履歴付ファイルを納品します。
(注)Sampleは2色ですが納品時の履歴は赤色のみとなります。

②生物学 【履歴確定】

BarThe bar-headed goose has a lot of higher tolerance for low oxygen pressure contrary to than A. anser and high hemoglobin haemoglobin (Hb)[Note: UK spelling & definition of abbreviation on first use] oxygen affinity which. These characteristics allow it to survive at high altitude altitudes. There are only four amino acid differences in the Hb of these species, but substitution of Pro for Ala[Check: “Pro with Ala” i.e. Pro->Ala vs. Ala->Pro] at position 119 in bar-headed goose, Hb makes smaller reduces contact between α1 subunit and β1 subunit subunits compared to A. anser. The enlarged increased oxygen affinity is due to destabilization destabilisation of the protein’s deoxy T state due to lessening by relaxation of the α1β1 interface. In thisThis paper describes the A. indicus oxy-hemoglobinhaemoglobin crystal structure is found out using determined by X-ray diffraction at 2 Å resolution (PDB entry: 1a4f) and we described it compared to in comparison with the deoxy T state (PDB entry: 1hv4).

In general, bar-headed goose hemoglobin haemoglobin has the same structure as other Hb Hbs, and is a tetramer made comprised of two 141-residue α-chains and two 146-residue β-chains bound noncovalently with almost consisting mostly of antiparallel helix helices (mostly α-helix) tied to little helices) with short β-turn without-turns and no β-sheets.

②物理学 【履歴確定】

We run ran TRACKERR and to check the behaviour of the simulation. As the first step, we check checked the dr and dz resolution resolutions of each momentum when track where the particle trajectory is perpendicular to the z direction. In this case, the impact parameter resolution should be asymptotically the same as approach the measurement error of the 1st layer of the PXD (50 μm/√12 – 14 μm) in at high momentum and be degraded by the effect of suffer from degradation due to multiple scattering at low momentum. The difference between the slant and straight design designs should be very small because there are only tiny difference differences in detector setting settings (at the location of the 4th layer) in this direction. The result is results are shown in Figure 4.5. The calculated dr resolution is and dz resolutions were 12.5 μm and dz resolution is 14 μm at 3GeV momentum of 3 GeV/c., respectively. These are values were consistent to with the expectation that these resolutions are the resolution would be dominated by the resolution of the innermost PXD (~14 μm). The momentum dependence of the dr and dz resolution resolutions shown in Figure 4.5 is was also as expected.

The second step is to see determine the magnet magnetic field dependence of the transverse momentum (i.e., pt) resolution). In a stronger strong magnetic field, the radius of the helix become small which results of the trajectory becomes shorter resulting in better pt resolution in the case of high-momentum tracks. In the case of low-momentum tracks, however, the particle can’t does not reach all detectors every detector and the hit number decreases which results resulting in worse lower pt resolution. The results for B = 1.5 and 1.2 T are shown in Figure 4.6. We find found better pt resolution in a stronger for strong magnetic field fields at higher high momentum and in a weaker weak magnetic field fields at lower low momentum which is, consistent to the expectation. After with expectations. The results of these checks, we confirm confirmed that TRACKERR runs correctly.

校正済みファイル(履歴なし)は下記のようになります。

③生物学 【履歴表示】

The bar-headed goose has higher tolerance for low oxygen pressure than A. anser and high haemoglobin (Hb)[Note: UK spelling & definition of abbreviation on first use] oxygen affinity. These characteristics allow it to survive at high altitudes. There are only four amino acid differences in the Hb of these species, but substitution of Pro for Ala[Check: “Pro with Ala” i.e. Pro->Ala vs. Ala->Pro] at position 119 in bar-headed goose Hb reduces contact between α1 and β 1 subunits compared to A. anser. The increased oxygen affinity is due to destabilisation of the protein’s deoxy T state by relaxation of the α1β1 interface. This paper describes the A. indicus oxy-haemoglobin crystal structure determined by X-ray diffraction at 2 Å resolution (PDB entry: 1a4f) in comparison with the deoxy T state (PDB entry: 1hv4).

In general, bar-headed goose haemoglobin has the same structure as other Hbs, and is a tetramer comprised of two 141-residue α-chains and two 146-residue β-chains bound noncovalently consisting mostly of antiparallel helices (mostly α-helices) with short β-turns and no β-sheets.

③物理学 【履歴表示】

We ran TRACKERR to check the behaviour of the simulation. As the first step, we checked the dr and dz resolutions of each momentum track where the particle trajectory is perpendicular to the z direction. In this case, the impact parameter resolution should asymptotically approach the measurement error of the 1st layer of the PXD (50 μm/√12 – 14 μm) at high momentum and suffer from degradation due to multiple scattering at low momentum. The difference between the slant and straight designs should be very small because there are only tiny differences in detector settings (at the location of the 4th layer) in this direction. The results are shown in Figure 4.5. The calculated dr and dz resolutions were 12.5 μm and 14 μm at momentum of 3 GeV/c, respectively. These values were consistent with the expectation that the resolution would be dominated by the resolution of the innermost PXD (~14 μm). The momentum dependence of the dr and dz resolutions shown in Figure 4.5 was also as expected.

The second step is to determine the magnetic field dependence of the transverse momentum (i.e., pt resolution). In a strong magnetic field, the radius of the helix of the trajectory becomes shorter resulting in better pt resolution in the case of high-momentum tracks. In the case of low-momentum tracks, however, the particle does not reach every detector and the hit number decreases resulting in lower pt resolution. The results for B = 1.5 and 1.2 T are shown in Figure 4.6. We found better pt resolution for strong magnetic fields at high momentum and weak magnetic fields at low momentum, consistent with expectations. The results of these checks confirmed that TRACKERR runs correctly.

英文校正エキスパートでも大多数の学会誌への投稿において問題は発生していません。しかし、実際にはお客様の英語のレベルによっては、いくら丁寧に間違いを直してみても最初から、ほぼ全文を書き換えない限りネイティブスピーカーが書いた論文と同じレベルにはできないこともあります。そのような場合、サイエンス、ネイチャーの様な超一流学会誌への投稿ではリライトがより望ましいと言えます。

LEVEL 3 - 弊社は個人情報保護方針から校閲見本にお客様データを使用していません。

🔷英文リライト[英→英]のサンプルは「英国英語仕上げ」です。

🔷履歴なしファイル(校正済み)と履歴付ファイルを納品します。
(注)Sampleは2色ですが納品時の履歴は赤色のみとなります。

④生物学 【履歴確定】

英文校正エキスパート→英文リライトへアップグレード

The bar-headed goose, Anser indicus, has markedly higher tolerance for low oxygen pressure pressures than A. related lowland species, such as the greylag goose, Anser anser and high[Note: inconsistent use of Latin species name; also, the full genus name is usually required on first use for each species]. This increased tolerance is reflected in the significantly higher oxygen affinity of its haemoglobin (Hb) oxygen affinity. These characteristics allow it[Note: UK spelling & definition of abbreviation on first use], which allows this species to survive at high higher altitudes. There are than its lowland relatives.

The Hbs of these two species show only four amino acid differences in the Hb of these species, but However, a Pro to Ala substitution of[Note: ambiguous-PDB check indicates Pro for Ala not Ala→Pro] at position amino acid residue 119 in bar-headed goose Hb reduces contact between the α1 and β1 subunits compared to in comparison with A. anser. The, which confers increased oxygen affinity is due to destabilisation of the protein’s by destabilising[Note: UK spelling] the protein's deoxy T state by due to relaxation of the α1β1 interface. This paper describes theThe crystal structure of A. indicus oxy-haemoglobin crystal structure determined[Note: UK spelling] was solved by X-ray diffraction at 2 Å a resolution of 2 Å (PDB entry: 1a4f) and is described here in comparison with the deoxy T state (PDB entry: 1hv4).

In general,Overall, the bar-headed goose haemoglobin has molecule shows the same general structure as other Hbs, and is a tetramer comprised of possessing two 141-residue α-chains and two 146-residue β-chains of 141 and 146 residues, respectively, bound to each other noncovalently consisting mostly. The molecule is comprised primarily of antiparallel helices (mostly α-helices) with linked by short β-turns and with no β-sheets.

④物理学 【履歴確定】

英文校正エキスパート→英文リライトへアップグレード

We ran used the package TRACKERR to check verify the behaviour of the simulation. AsIn the first step, we checked the dr and dz resolutions of each momentum track tracks where the particle trajectory is was perpendicular to the z direction. In this case,For high-momentum tracks, the impact parameter resolution should converge asymptotically approach the measurement error of toward the 1st layer tolerance of the PXD 1st layer (50 μm/√12 – 14 μm) at high, while low-momentum and suffer from degradation tracks should be degraded due to multiple scattering at low momentum effects. The difference differences between the slant and straight designs should be very negligible due to the small because there are only tiny differences in detector settings (at the location of the 4th layer) in for this direction. The results are in the 4th layer, as shown in Figure 4.5. The calculated dr and dz resolutions were 12.5 μm and 14 μm at for 3 GeV/c momentum of 3 GeV/c tracks, respectively. These values wereThis result was consistent with the expectation that the overall resolution would should be dominated by the resolution of the innermost PXD (~14 μm). The dr and dz resolution momentum dependence of the dr and dz resolutions shown in Figure 4.5 was the plot also as expected conformed to expectations.

TheIn the second step is to determine, we measured the magnetic field dependence of the transverse momentum (i.e., pt) resolution). InThe helical radius of a track in a strong magnetic field, the radius of the helix of the trajectory becomes shorter resulting in is small allowing for better pt resolution in the case of at high momentum tracks. In the case ofTracks with low momentum tracks, however, the particle does will not reach pass through every detector and the. The resulting reduction in hit number decreases resulting in leads to lower pt resolution. The results for B = 1.5 and 1.2 T are shown in Figure 4.6. We found betterConsistent with predictions, pt resolution for was the most sensitive for high-momentum tracks in strong magnetic fields at high and low-momentum and tracks in weak magnetic fields at low momentum, consistent with expectations. The results of these checks confirmed that TRACKERR runs correctly ran as expected.

リライト済みファイル(履歴なし)は下記のようになります。

⑤生物学 【履歴表示】

The bar-headed goose, Anser indicus, has markedly higher tolerance for low oxygen pressures than related lowland species, such as the greylag goose, Anser anser[Note: inconsistent use of Latin species name; also the full genus name is usually required on first use for each species]. This increased tolerance is reflected in the significantly higher oxygen affinity of its haemoglobin (Hb)[Note: UK spelling & definition of abbreviation on first use], which allows this species to survive at higher altitudes than its lowland relatives.

The Hbs of these two species show only four amino acid differences. However, a Pro to Ala substitution[Note: ambiguous-PDB check indicates Pro→Ala not Ala→Pro] at amino acid residue 119 in bar-headed goose Hb reduces contact between the α1 and β1 subunits in comparison with A. anser, which confers increased oxygen affinity by destabilising[Note: UK spelling] the protein's deoxy T state due to relaxation of the α1β1 interface. The crystal structure of A. indicus oxy-haemoglobin[Note: UK spelling] was solved by X-ray diffraction at a resolution of 2 Å (PDB entry: 1a4f) and is described here in comparison with the deoxy T state (PDB entry: 1hv4).

Overall, the bar-headed goose haemoglobin molecule shows the same general structure as other Hbs, and is a tetramer possessing two α- and two β-chains of 141 and 146 residues, respectively, bound to each other noncovalently. The molecule is comprised primarily of antiparallel helices (mostly α-helices) linked by short β-turns with no β-sheets.

⑤物理学 【履歴表示】

We used the package TRACKERR to verify the behaviour of the simulation. In the first step, we checked the dr and dz resolutions of momentum tracks where the particle trajectory was perpendicular to the z direction. For high-momentum tracks, the impact parameter resolution should converge asymptotically toward the tolerance of the PXD 1st layer (50 μm/√12 – 14 μm), while low-momentum tracks should be degraded due to multiple scattering effects. The differences between the slant and straight designs should be negligible due to the small differences in detector settings for this direction in the 4th layer, as shown in Figure 4.5. The calculated dr and dz resolutions were 12.5 μm and 14 μm for 3 GeV/c momentum tracks, respectively. This result was consistent with the expectation that overall resolution should be dominated by the innermost PXD (~14 μm). The dr and dz resolution momentum dependence shown in the plot also conformed to expectations.

In the second step, we measured the magnetic field dependence of the transverse momentum (i.e., pt) resolution. The helical radius of a track in a strong magnetic field is small allowing for better i.e.,pt resolution at high momentum. Tracks with low momentum, however, will not pass through every detector. The resulting reduction in hit number leads to lower pt resolution. The results for B = 1.5 and 1.2 T are shown in Figure 4.6. Consistent with predictions, pt resolution was the most sensitive for high-momentum tracks in strong magnetic fields and low-momentum tracks in weak magnetic fields. The results of these checks confirmed that TRACKERR ran as expected.

LEVEL 2 - 弊社は個人情報保護方針から校閲見本にお客様データを使用していません。

🔷英文添削[日本語参照作業]のサンプルは「米国英語仕上げ」です。

お客様の論文を「英語ネイティブが読んでも意味不明」であり、その真意を推測することも困難な場合「英文のみの校閲が不可能」となります。そのような場合であっても日英翻訳ではなくて「英語をなんとかしてほしい」という研究者向けに「英文を日本語にあわせて訂正する校閲」を提供しています。これは翻訳ではありませんので、固有名詞、及び、ご自身の専門分野の用語については事前確認をお願いします。

🔷履歴なしファイル(校正済み)と履歴付ファイルを納品します。

<化学>

水を電気分解して水素と酸素に変換するのに対して、燃料電池は、 水素と空気中の酸素から電気を発生させるという逆転の発想で作られています。 コスト面では、燃料電池膜(PEM)やカソード触媒やアノード触媒に使用される材料の 耐久性や効率性などが課題として挙げられます。環境面では、水素の製造に使われる 天然ガスなどの非グリーン燃料からの脱却が課題となっています。 Ptベースのカソード触媒に代わるものとして、耐久性のある窒素ドープ炭素材料や、 安価なニッケル・モリブデンナノ複合材料から作られる触媒があり将来性を期待されています。 又、最近は、前処理なしで海水を分解して水素を製造するという工業要件も満たすようになっています。 新しい燃料電池膜技術の開発により、燃料電池技術全体が十分に安価で効率的になり、 産業用および輸送用アプリケーションにおいて、内燃機関や火力発電所にとってかわることも可能になりつつあります。

添削済みファイル(履歴つき)は下記のようになります。
(注)Sampleは2色ですが納品時の履歴は赤色のみとなります。

Electrolysis of water results inWater can be electrolyzed into hydrogen and oxygen, but fuel cells do the opposite, generating whereas a fuel cell essentially reverses this process to produce electricity from a store of hydrogen and the oxygen from the available in ambient air. From a cost perspective,Cost challenges include the durability and efficiency of materials used in making to make the polymer electrolyte membranes membrane (PEM) and the cathode or anode catalyst are issues. From an environmental standpoint, Environmental challenges include the need to move away from non-green fuels sources of fuel, such as natural gas used to produce in the production of hydrogen. Cathode catalysts made from durable nitrogen-doped carbon materials and along with those made from inexpensive Ni–Mo nanocomposites are represent promising alternatives to Pt-based cathode catalysts, and recent research has met industry industrial requirements to produce hydrogen by cracking brine for splitting salt water without pretreatment to produce hydrogen. Developments in new PEM fuel cell technology are making the entire fuel cell are also helping to make overall fuel cell technology sufficiently cheap enough and efficient enough to begin replacing internal combustion engines and thermal power plants in industrial and transportation applications.

添削済みファイル(履歴なし)は下記のようになります。
標準仕様(英訳版のみの納品)ご依頼原稿のtypoはmind readingで対応します。
翻訳(日➡英)の場合も同様の仕上がりとなります。

<化学>

Water can be electrolyzed into hydrogen and oxygen, whereas a fuel cell essentially reverses this process to produce electricity from a store of hydrogen and the oxygen available in ambient air. Cost challenges include the durability and efficiency of materials used to make the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) and the cathode or anode catalyst. Environmental challenges include the need to move away from non-green sources of fuel, such as natural gas used in the production of hydrogen. Cathode catalysts made from durable nitrogen-doped carbon materials along with those made from inexpensive Ni–Mo nanocomposites represent promising alternatives to Pt-based cathode catalysts, and recent research has met industrial requirements for splitting salt water without pretreatment to produce hydrogen. Developments in new PEM fuel cell technology are also helping to make overall fuel cell technology sufficiently cheap and efficient to begin replacing internal combustion enginesand thermal power plants in industrial and transportation applications.

<契約書>

本契約に含まれる条件は、当事者間の完全な合意を構成し、口頭または書面を問わず、本契約の主題に関する当事者間の以前のすべての打ち合わせ内容に取って代わり 優先されるものとし、これを変更または拡張する以前のいかなる合意または理解も、本契約のいずれかの当事者を拘束しないものとする。

添削済みファイル(履歴つき)は下記のようになります。
(注)Sampleは2色ですが納品時の履歴は赤色のみとなります。
plus仕様[日本語版と英語版を納品]では、ご依頼原稿も点検して、記載内容の間違いも校閲します。

The terms and conditions herein contained herein constitute the entire agreement between the parties and replace supersede all prior discussions, previous communications, whether oral or written, between the parties concerning hereto with respect to the subject matter hereof, and no prior previous agreement or understanding, modifying varying or extending the same, shall be binding on upon either party hereto.

添削済みファイル(履歴なし)は下記のようになります。
翻訳(日➡英)の場合も同様の仕上がりとなります。

<契約書>

The terms and conditions herein contained constitute the entire agreement between the parties and supersede all previous communications, whether oral or written, between the parties hereto with respect to the subject matter hereof, and no previous agreement or understanding varying or extending the same, shall be binding upon either party hereto.

英日翻訳ファイル(注記つき)は下記のようになります。

<契約書2>

Event Management shall invoice Dolphin for the fees due under the Agreement upon execution of this Agreement. Dolphin shall have no obligation to pay any late payment fees of any kind. Payment shall be due immediately upon Dolphin’s receipt of the valid, undisputed invoice.

<契約書2>

イベント運営会社は、本契約に基づき支払われるべき料金を、本契約締結後ドルフィンに請求する。ドルフィンは如何なる支払遅延料も支払う義務はないものとする。支払はドルフィンが有効かつ異議のない請求書を受領した後、直ちになされるものとする。

異議のない請求書
請求書を受領した当事者が請求書の内容に対し異議を申し立てておらず双方が合意している請求書

AI翻訳(英文添削)

🔷英文添削[日本語参照作業]のサンプルは「米国英語仕上げ」です。
こちらは日本語原稿をそのままAIを使用して英語に変換したものを、英文添削したものです。

🔷履歴なしファイル(校正済み)と履歴付ファイルを納品します。

<一般>

英国文化に端を発しながら、英語は世界中で「世界共通語」として広く認知されている。このことは、アメリカ大統領が官公庁の文書に「プレーン・イングリッシュ」(1)の使用を義務付けていることや、アメリカのジャーナリズムでプレーン・イングリッシュが流行しつつあることに示されている。

プレーン・イングリッシュ(1): https://www.sec.gov/pdf/handbook.pdf

英語が母国語である国は数多くあり、多くのバリエーションを生み出している。例えば、カナダの英語はしばしばイギリスの綴りを採用し、アメリカの文法が標準となっているようだ。また、発音もアメリカのアナウンサーに近い。カナダ英語はアメリカ英語よりもリエゾンが少なく、発音もはっきりしているようだ。

英語圏の言語とは異なるが、日本にも独特の英語スタイルがある。明治・大正時代(1868-1926)、日本人はイギリス英語で教育を受けた。しかし、第2次世界大戦で日本が敗戦すると、アメリカ政府はアメリカ式綴りの使用を命じた。当初はアメリカ式の綴りだけが採用されたが、言葉遣いの大きな違いはやがてアメリカ式に変わった。現在でも、句読点などに英国式の名残がある。

このような新しい英語は世界中で使われているにもかかわらず、研究論文などの学術的な文章では認められていない。

現代では、アメリカ英語の影響があまりにも大きく、英語を母国語とする人たちでさえ、標準イギリス英語と英国で使われている変種を区別することが難しくなっている。このような状況下で生まれたのが、学術論文と新聞で使用するスペルが異なるオックスフォード英語である。しかし、両者にはそれぞれのスタイルを明確に規定し、曖昧さを排除したマニュアルが存在する。そのためか、新聞用のオックスフォード英語が、英語学校でのイギリス英語の標準として定着している。

添削済みファイル(履歴つき)は下記のようになります。
(注)Sampleは2色ですが納品時の履歴は赤色のみとなります。

WhileAlthough originating inas part of British culture, English is widely recognized as a "universal language" throughoutaround the world. This is demonstratedexemplified by the fact that the President of the United States has mandated the use of plain"Plain English"(1) in governmentfor documents in public offices, and that plainindeed Plain English is becoming popular in American journalism.

Plain English(1): cf. https://www.sec.gov/pdf/handbook.pdf

There are manya number of countries where English is the native language, creatinggiving rise to many variations. For example, Canadian English often adopts British spelling and, while American grammar seems to behave become the standard. ItIn addition, pronunciation is also often pronounced like anthat of American announcerannouncers. Canadian English seems to havehas fewer liaisons and seems to have clearer pronunciation than American English.

Although different from the language of English-speaking countries,Japan also has its own unique English language style differing from the language of English-speaking countries. During the Meiji and Taisho periods (1868-1926), Japanese people were educated in British English. However, whenAfter Japan was defeated’s defeat in World War II, however, the U.S. governmentUS administration ordered the use of American-style spelling. At firstInitially, only the American spelling was adopted, but the major differences in wording eventually changed to the AmericanUS style. Even today, there are still remnants of the British style, e.g., in punctuation and other aspects of the, etc.

AlthoughDespite their use these new varieties of English language exist throughout all over the world, they these new varieties of English are not accepted in academic texts writing, such as research papers.

In the modern timesage, the influence of American English has becomeis so great that it has become difficult even for native English speakers have difficulty distinguishing betweento distinguish Standard British English and thefrom variants used in the UK. What emerged from this situation wasUnder these conditions, Oxford English, a different was born, which differs in spelling usedfor use in academic papers and newspapers. However, both havethere are manuals for both that clearly definespecify their respective styles and eliminate ambiguity. Perhaps for this reason,This may be why Oxford English for newspapers has become is established as the standard for British English in English schools.

添削済みファイル(履歴なし)は下記のようになります。
翻訳(日➡英)の場合も同様の仕上がりとなります。

<一般>

Although originating as part of British culture, English is widely recognized as a "universal language" around the world. This is exemplified by the fact that the President of the United States has mandated the use of "Plain English"(1) for documents in public offices, and indeed Plain English is becoming popular in American journalism.

Plain English(1): cf. https://www.sec.gov/pdf/handbook.pdf

There are a number of countries where English is the native language, giving rise to many variations. For example, Canadian English often adopts British spelling, while American grammar seems to have become the standard. In addition, pronunciation is often like that of American announcers. Canadian English has fewer liaisons and seems to have clearer pronunciation than American English.

Japan has its own unique English language style differing from the language of English-speaking countries. During the Meiji and Taisho periods (1868–1926), Japanese people were educated in British English. After Japan’s defeat in World War II, however, the US administration ordered the use of American-style spelling. Initially, only American spelling was adopted, but the major differences in wording eventually changed to US style. Even today, there are remnants of British style, e.g., in punctuation, etc.

Despite their use all over the world, these new varieites of English are not accepted in academic writing, such as research papers.

In the modern age, the influence of American English is so great that it has become difficult even for native English speakers to distinguish Standard British English from variants used in the UK. Under these conditions, Oxford English was born, which differs in spelling for use in academic papers and newspapers. However, there are manuals for both that clearly specify their styles and eliminate ambiguity. This may be why Oxford English for newspapers is established as the standard for British English in English schools.